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August 17, 2009

Overview of the Newfoundland Mi’kmaq: The Mi’kmaq of Ktaqamkuk (Newfoundland-the Big Shore)



Overview of the Newfoundland Mi’kmaq
Introduction

The Mi’kmaq of Ktaqamkuk (Newfoundland-the Big Shore), are part of the great
Mi’kmaq Nation that occupy parts of Main, USA; the Maritime Provinces (Nova Scotia,
New Brunswick, PEI, and Newfoundland), as well as Quebec. The Mi’kmaq were the
first aboriginal group in eastern North America to encounter European newcomers.
The Mi’kmaq are the largest surviving Algonquian speaking aboriginal group in North
America. As Mi’kmaq, we share language, cultural, and spiritual characteristics as well
as values that identify us ethnically as Mi’kmaq. The Mi’kmaq, historically, were
moderately nomadic, and alternated their settlements from seasonal campsites with the
changing seasons in response to environmental and social stimuli. The Mi’kmaq share a
deep attachment to the land and its resources. As such, the Mi’kmaq oral history,
customs, spirituality, songs and traditions reiterate the importance of the land, sea and its
resources.
Contemporary Mi’kmaq Communities in Ktaqamkuk
Today our people are located at various places in Newfoundland including:
Flat Bay, St. George's, Port au Port, Indian Head, Corner Brook and Benoit's Cove in the
Western region.
Sple'tk (Exploits) First Nations, Glenwood and Gander Bay in Central Region
Historic Mi’kmaq Presence in Ktaqamkuk
The Mi’kmaq believe that we have always used Ktaqamkuk for seasonal resource
extraction long before European colonization of Newfoundland. Later during the 18th
century our occupation of Ktaqamkuk took on a more year round presence.
Frank Speck (1922:123-124 wrote:
“Throughout Newfoundland the Indians [the Mi’kmaq] refer to their predecessors as
‘Saywedikjk’, the ancients, speaking of them as if they were the first inhabitants of the
island…”
In terms of Mi’kmaq travel to Newfoundland, Speck commented on our ancestor’s ocean
going canoe crossings:
“The route lay between Cape North (of Cape Breton) and cape ray on the southwestern
coast of Newfoundland, a distance of sixty-five miles, land being dimly visible in fine
weather. This bold journey was ordinarily accomplished in two days they say.”
The chronological record of our presence in Newfoundland, documented by European
writers, provides a detailed time line of our peoples’ presence in Newfoundland from
1713 to 1800.

Some of the places our people were known to be located or frequenting in Ktaqamkuk
prior to Confederation were:


Gander Bay (1857 census) Grandys Brook (1857 census)
Bay d’ Espoir (1857 census) Bay of Islands (Howley Aft 1860?)
Bay St. George (Captain James Cook 1767;
Cormack 1822)
Bonne Bay (Howley Aft 1860?)
Codroy (Cormack 1822) Clode Sound (Cormack 1822)
Badger Brook (Speck 1922) Exploits Bay ((1857 census)
Halls Bay (1869, 1874, 1884 census) Glenwood (McGregor Report, 1908)
Fogo (1798 Captain Crofton Waldegrave) Canning’s Cove (1850, A.E. Penney)
Trinity (1822, Rev. John Walsh) Burgeo/White Bear Bay (1822 Cormack.)



Mi’kmaq Land and Resource Use in Newfoundland


Mi’kmaq land and resource use in Newfoundland in the 18th and 19th century followed a
seasonal cycle of subsistence foraging and commercial trapping. This mode of land use
involved alternating between permanent coastal sites and interior hunting camps and
trapping grounds. As such, our people were the first to utilize and transverse most of
Newfoundland’s interior. The first European to travel the interior of Newfoundland
outside of the Avalon Peninsula was William Epps Cormack, in 1822, guided by a
Mi’kmaq, Sylvester Joe. Cormack engaged Joe as a guide to transverse the interior in the
hopes of encountering the disappearing Beothukuk; however, instead they encountered
three groups of Mi’kmaq while traveling towards western Newfoundland. These
Mi’kmaq were in the interior hunting and trapping and utilizing age old customary travel
routes between St. George’s Bay, White Bay, and Bay d’Espoir. Cormack also made note
of Mi’kmaq land and canoe routes across the island between Bay d’Espoir and Gander
Bay.
The following are selected excerpts that give an indication of Mi’kmaq land use at the
time, motivation, economy, and seasonal patterns in Ktakamkuk:
1. A 1797 report of Captain Ambrose Crofton:
“…the Foreign Indians always remain near this [St. George’s] Harbour during the
winter; that their principle motive, is on account of the great quantity of Eels that
are found in Flat bay near St. George’s harbour, and all along the South Shore from
Cape Anguille. These Indians have always been on amicable Footing with the two
families alluded to and travel overland with their furs annually to Fortune Bay, of
the Bay Despair, where they receive power, shot and blanketing in lieu of their furs,
which I find trifling owing to their indolence.”
2. Jukes in 1839”
“The Mi’kmaq live chiefly on western side of Nfld., wandering from Fortune Bay to
St. George’s to White Bay and Bay of Exploits living in the winter on game and in
the summer joining in the fishery, or getting desolutry employment. The number
not a hundred families.”
3. Speck 1922:
“Throughout Newfoundland the Indians (Mi’kmaq refer to their predecessors as
SAYEWDJKIK, the “Ancients”, speaking of them as though they were the first
inhabitants of the Island. Some of the older Micmac-Montagnais (Innu) even claim
that the Sayewdjkik antedated the coming of the Beothuk. Ignoring such testimony,
I think we may conclude that the term simply refers to the earlier Micmac colonists
from the mainland, whose numbers were few and whose isolation rendered them
distinct in some respects in culture and possibly in dialect. These people are believed
to have been true Micmac and to have had a complete native nomenclature for the
prominent places in the island. Some of the older Indians recall hearing about the
last of these Sayewdjkik in the person of an old blind woman who died in Sydney
many years ago. Although over one hundred years of age, she was conveyed in a
canoe by her relatives, at her own request, over a large part of Newfoundland,
giving the various lakes, rivers and mountains their proper names according to the
ancient terminology…The Sayewdjkik families are said to have become completely
merged with the later comers from Cape Breton and Labrador.”
4. Earl of Dunraven 1879:
The Irish Earl of Dunraven visited Ktaqamkuk in 1879, at White Bay, where he was
welcomed by one Abraham Joe “.... an active upright man, standing about six feet
two inches in his moccasins, and broad and strong in proportion. He had spent
nearly all his life in Newfoundland, and knew the interior of the island better than
any man living.... Poor Old Abraham Joe was very unhappy about the state of
things in Newfoundland. Too much civilization was destroying the island, in his
estimation. “Yes, sir,” he said to me one day, “things are very different from what
they used to be. Lord! I mind the times when a man might travel from one end of
the island to the others and see nobody nowheres. Beavers were plenty then, and
there was a good price for fur too; now there ain’t no price, and beavers and otters
ain’t plenty like they used to be. Those d - d lumbermen be come up the rivers and
scare the game.... Over this small community and large territory old Abraham Joe
ruled after the manner of a feudal lord, settling all little disputes and parceling out
the country into hunting grounds for each individual member of his family.”

Mi’kmaq Social Unit-Position of Chief

Traditionally, the basic social unit among the Mi’kmaq was a residential kin-group
consisting of a headman (saqamaw), his nuclear family, and some of his married sons and
daughters and their families. This extended family could also encompass various other
individuals-widowed parents, unmarried brothers, cousins, and other kinfolk in both the
matri- and patrilineal lines.” (Prins 1996)
The family is still an important social element in contemporary Mi’kmaq society in
Ktaqamkuk. Connections and contact between Mi’kmaq families in different parts of
Ktaqamkuk continue to be a central element the unity and cohesiveness of the
Ktaqamkuk Mi’kmaq. For example, family kinship connects the Glenwood Mi’kmaq to
the Gander Bay Mi’kmaq, the Miawpukek Mi’kmaq at Conne River and the Eskazoni
Mi’kmaq at Cape Breton Nova Scotia despite the great differences in geography. The
Benoits Cove and Corner Brook Mi’kmaq have family connections with the Bay St.
George’s Mi’kmaq and vice versa.

The Saqamaw or Chief, as head of extended families and Mi’kmaq communities
represents an important position in historic and contemporary Mi’kmaq society.
“ …among them, each man is his own master and his own protector. They have
Sagamores, that is, leaders in war; but their authority is most precarious, if, indeed,
that may me called authority to which obedience is in no wise obligatory. The
Indians follow them through the persuasion of example or of custom, [14] or of ties
of kindred and alliance; sometimes even through a certain authority of power, no
doubt.” (Pierre Biard; Jesuit Relations)
Chapell 1813 states that the Mi’kmaq “after boldly launching out to sea in their crazy
shallops or canoes…eventually reached St. George’s Bay in safety” where their first act:
“…was to appoint the old Indian. Who had conducted them thither, their Chief in
perpetuity, and they next “buried the sword” as a symbol that war had forever
ceased between their tribe and the English Nation”

Spirituality-Religion of the Newfoundland Mi’kmaq

Ktaqamkuk Mi’kmaq, as with Mi’kmaq through out eastern Canada and elsewhere, are
predominantly Roman Catholic. In 1610, Grand Chief Membertou, head chief of all the
Mi’kmaq, converted to Roman Catholicism. This resulted in the Mi’kmaq Nation as a
whole converting to Roman Catholicism.
However, the Roman Catholicism practiced by the Mi’kmaq was and is unique, and
comprises elements of traditional spiritualism.
“The are Roman Catholics, but their religious ceremonies, of which they are
observant consist of a combination of those of that church and their own primitive
ceremonies blended together, to suit their convenience and tastes.” (Cormack 1822)
Harold Prins, 1996 writes: “Traditionally Mi’kmaqs saw all of creations as imbued
with spiritual force they called mntu. The greatest force of all was niskam, the sun,
which they saluted at its rising and setting. Aiming to convert Mikmaqs to
Christianity, French missionaries became referring to the Christian god in terms of
niskam. Gradually the word became equated with the idea of God. In the words of a
17th century Mi’kmaq: “Niscaminou” means our sun, or our God”.
Today, Roman Catholicism is still an important part of Mi’kmaq spirituality. However, as
part of the cultural revival taking place in Mi’kmaq society there is a reversion to many
traditional spiritual practices. As such, the sunrise ceremony, pipe ceremony, sweat lodge
ceremony are practiced by many Mi’kmaq.

Mi’kmaq Place Names:
The following is from the publication “KIILUSUAQANEY WI'KATIKIIN”, compiled
by John Hewson, Department of Linguistics, and Memorial University of Newfoundland,
in August 1978. Offering the knowledge of Mi'kmaq Elders Matthieu/Matthew Jeddore,
Paul Nicholas Jeddore, Nickly/Nigola Jeddore and Piel (Peter Jeddore), all now deceased.

(BL - Burgeo-La Poile; HC - Hermitage-Conne; C - Conne River; FB - Fortune Bay; PB -
Placentia Bay; B - Bonavista; E -Exploits; SG - St. George's.
A’KUSÍNJI’JK WE’KATIK CARROL’S HAT (FB)
A’QATAYKIK HALFWAY MOUNTAIN (E)
AKLASIE’WA’KI’JK SOUTHWEST GANDER RIVER (B)
AKÍLASIE'WE'KATIK ENGLISH HARBOUR (FB)
AKÍLASIYE'WA'KIK GANDER RIVER (B)
AKÍLASIYE'WA'KIK QOSPEM GANDER LAKE (B)
AMASAMKITKEWEY LONG RAPIDS (HC)
AMASIPUKWEK QUILLIER (HC)
ANIAPSKWOJ ANNIEOPSQUOTCH MOUNTAINS (E)
ANMALI’JEK ANNIE LAKE (FB)
APÍTA’KWEJITUIKTUK MOUNT PEYTON (B)
APUTAMKIEJITUEY JUNIPER COVE (C)
APÍLI’KÍMUJUE’KATIK HARE HILL (C) AND HARE BAY (BL)
ASOKOMOTAQAN NOEL PAUL’S STEADY (E)
ATOQWA'SUE'KATIK TROUT RIVER (SG)
ATTUENEK ANTHONY’S LAKE (HC)
AWAQAN’JI’JK LITTLE PORTAGE (HC AND SG)
AWLIEK UNIKAN HOWLEY’S PORTAGE (E)
E’SE’KATIK ST. JOSEPH’S COVE (COCK-N-HEN
COVE(C)
EKKIANEK STEPHENSON’S POND (BL)
ELMASTUKWEK BAY OF ISLANDS (SG)
ELUE’WIE’KATIK BARCHOIS HARBOUR (C)
EPTEWIKTU’J BURNT KNAPPS (FB)
EPUNTEKEWEY CORMACK’S LAKE (E)
EPÍKÍN'PE'K EBBEGUNBAEG LAKE (BL)
ETLI-UNAQATEJITA’JIK WING POINT (C)
ıLNU EPIJ INDIAN SIT-DOWN POND (HC)
IILNUE'KWIISAWEY INDIAN POINT (C)
JA’LUIEK JOHN LEWIS HILL (HC)
JAKEJUIKUOM LOBSTER HOUSE LAKE (SG)
JIJUIKATEJUE’KATIK TWILLICK POND (HC)
JIPU’JI’J LITTLE RIVER(C)
JIPU’JI’JUEY QOSPEM LITTLE RIVER POND (C)
JO'MIKELEK MIGUEL'S BROOK (B)
JO'MIKELJI'JK MIGUEL'S BROOK (E)
KATALISK SIPU CODROY RIVER (SG)
KATALISK SIPU ST. JOSEPH'S COVE (C)
KAWATKWI’KIIN SPRUCE POND (B)
KAWATKWIKTUK SPRUCE POINT (C)
KE’KUTEK TOP POND (BL)
KE'KUTEK KAEGUDECK LAKE (FB)
KELU’SITEW GAFF TOPSAIL (E)
KEPAPSKEK NORRIS ARM (E)
KEPE’K TICKLE, STRAIGHT (C)
KEPIINKEK KEPENKECK LAKE (B)
KESKWOTEKEWEY HARRY’S POND? (SG)
KESKWOTEKEWEY QOSPEM HARRY1S POND? (SG)
KESKWOTEKEWEY QOSPEM HARRY1S POND? (SG)
KETUASTUKWEK GEORGE’S LAKE (SG)
KI’KWESUE’KATIK MUSKRAT POINT (C)
KIETO’LEK JEDDORE’S POND (NOT THE
RESERVOIR)(HC)
KIILOQONTIEJUE’KATIK LITTLE GULL BROOK (B)
KIUNIKUIKUOMK OTTER POINT (C)
KJIPA'TıLIA'SEWEY QAPSKUK BISHOPS FALLS (E)
KLUJJIEWPE’K CROSS POND (KING GEORGE V LAKE) (E)
KOTALIEK SPRING WATER POND/COLD SPRING
POND (HC)
KSINUKWAQANO'KUOMK HOSPITAL HILL (FB, PB?)
KTAQAMK NEWFOUNDLAND
KTAQAMKUK NEWFOUNDLAND, IN NEWFOUNDLAND
KUKUMIJINAWEYNU FRIAR (HC)
KULKWI’JI’JUE’KATIK PIG’S HEAD (C)
KUMIJK BOAT COVE (C)
KUN’TEW NEMLA’TEK ROCKY POINT (C)
KUN’TEW NIKAN ROCK PORTAGE, SERPINTINE HILL (HC)
KUN’TEWI’JI’JK TROUT BROOK
KUN’TEWIK ROCKY BROOK (C)
KUOW NIKAN DEAD MAN’S PORTAGE (HC)
KUPIILEK RICH POND (B)
KUTAPSKU'J BARACHOIS (C)
KWESAWAMKIAQ SANDY POINT (SG AND C)
KWESAWATKEK POINT OF WOODS (HC)
KWETAPET OX POINT (C)
KWIMUE’KATIK LOON COVE (C)
KıLO’TEK CLAUDE POND (FB)
LAPWELK LA POILE (BL)
LAPıTE'SPE'L BAY D' ESPOIR (C)
LU’TIK ROIT HARBOUR/POINT (C)
MA’YEME’GWIK BURGEO (BL)
MALIA’NEK SOUTH POND (C)
MALIKE’WJI’JUE’KATIK LITTLE ROUND POND (HC)
MALIKUJEK MOLLYGUAJEK LAKE (B)
MAQTEWAPKEK BLACK ROCK (BL)
MAQTEWEY SIPU BLACK RIVER (PB)
MAQTUKWEK HUMBER RIVER (SG)
MASKWIKTUK BIRCH ISLAND (C)
MEKAPIISK LONG RANGE MOUNTAINS (SG)
MEKWAYE’KATIK MIDDLE RIDGE (BL)
MEKWE’JITE’WA’KIK QAPSKUK RED INDIAN FALLS (E)
MEKWE’JITE’WEY ASKO’PIITI RED INDIAN LOOKOUT (E)
MEKWEJITE'WA'KIK NEWFOUNDLAND, RED INDIAN LAND
MEKWE'JITE'WA'KIK RED INDIAN LAKE (E)
MEKWIISAQJI’JIT RED CLIFF (FB)
MEKWIISAQJI’JITEWEY QOSPEM RED CLIFF LAKE (FB)
MEKWISKAJK TERRA NOVA RIVER (B)
MESKI’K WALNEY BIG COVE (C)
METOQONIKANEK MEDDONEGANNIX LAKE (FB)
METOQWAMKWA’JI’JK PARTRIDGE POINT (C)
MI’KLIIN MIQUELON (C)
MIAWPUKWEK CODROY ROVER (SG) CONNE RIVER (C)
MIAWPUKWEK CONNE RIVER (C)
MIINIKUPE'K ISLAND POND (HC)
MIJUA’JI’JUE’KATIK CHILD BROOK (B)
MIKEL PIIM'TIIN MIGUEL HILL (E)
MILPE'K MEELPAEG (BL)
MPIISQA’LPE’K ROUND POND (C)
MTEWEKvNATKU’JK FLAGSTAFF HILL (FB)
MUINAQAN BERRY HILL (C)
MULINK MILLTOWN (C)
MULISEK MORRISVILLE (C)
MvNIKO’WEY BIRCH RIND POND (B)
NAJIOQONUK BURGEO (BL)
NANETEK NONEDUCK LAKE (FB)
NASUNIKE’JI’JK RUSHY POND (E)
NEWKTEYPUKUIT BACHELOR’S POINT (C)
NEWKTIPUKWI’TEK LONG POINT (SG)
NIIMAQTIIN NOEL PAUL’S HILL (E)
NIMNOQONE’KATIK WITCH HAZEL HILLS (HC)
NIWE’KEWEY QOSPEM DRY POND (SHALLOW POND) (BL)
NQANAQANIIK GREY RIVER (BL)
NUELPO’LEK NOEL PAUL’S BROOK (E)
NUJIO'QON ST. GEORGE'S (SG)
NUJIO'QONIIK ST. GEORGE’S BAY/RIVER (SG)
NUKAMKIA’JI’JK SANDY HARBOUR (PB)
NUKAMKIA’JI’JKK SANDY POND (HC)
OQWATvNIPUKWEK BAY DU NORD (HC AND FB)
PA’QAMIKEKEWEY SIPU BADGER RIVER (E)
PA’TIILIA’SUIQAPSKUK PRIEST’S FALLS (HC)
PANUE’JI’JK LITTLE FLATS (KNAPPS?) (C)
PANUEK BIG FLATS (KNAPPS?) (C)
PAPKE’K UNIKAN PORTAGE LAKE/POND (FB)
PAQJUASTUKWEK CROOKED STILL (B)
PAQJU'PE'K CROOKED LAKE (HC)
PAQTIISIIMUIKTUK WOLF RIVER/LAKE (BL)
PAQTIISIIMUIPIIM’TIIN WOLF RIDGE/MOUNTAIN (BL)
PA'SI'LEK BRAZIL LAKE (HC)
PASKWE'WA'KIK BASQUE BROOK (E)
PASTUNKEYWA'KIK UNITED STATES
PEJIPUKWEK DEEP COVE (C)
PEJUWE’KATIK FISH COVE (C)
PEKWATAPAQ TERRA NOVA LAKE (B)
PEKWATAPAQ TROUT MOUNTAIN BROOK (E)
PEKWATATEK TWIN NECK (HC)
PEKWOTAPAQ BIG COVE (HC)
PETEWIKE’JI’JK LITTLE BURNT POND (HC)
PETEWIKEK BURNT POND (HC)
PETEWIKPE’K BURNT POND (BL)
PIE’L’JA’NEK PETER JOHN’S MARSH (B)
PIILAMUIPKE’KATIK MINT BROOK (B)
PIILAWEJUIKTUK PARTRIDGE ISLAND (HC)
PIISKWA'TAQAN'JI'J PUSHTHROUGH (HC)
PIITEWEYE’KATIK TEA POND (C)
PIJIPUKWEK LONG HARBOUR (FB)
PITA’Q QOSPEM LONG POND (NOW JEDDORE LAKE) (HC)
PITA’QJI’JK LONG POINT (C)
PKAWE’KATIK CLAY BANK (C)
PLIISANTEK PLACENTIA
PLUCHIO PAEG CROSS POND/KING GEORGE V LAKE
PMAQTIIIN MOUNT SYLVESTER (FB)
PTUIKANJI’J LOG CABIN (SG)
PU’TAYE’KATIK LLOYD’S POND(LAKE) (E)
PUTOPS PUDOPS LAKE (HC)
PvLESTOQ DEAD WOLF RIVER (B)
PvLNA’LJI’JEK BERNARD’S POND (HC)
QA’QAQWEJWE’KATIK CROW HEAD (C)
QALIPUE'KATIK DEER LAKE (SG)
QAPSKU’JK RATTLING FALLS (E)
QAPSKUK GRAND FALLS (E)
QAPSKUK VICTORIA LAKE FALLS (E)
QAQSIT PvM’TvN BURNT HILL (BL AND B)
QAQTEK KIIMU’J BURNT WOODS (C)
QASKUE’KATIK MCKELL POND (FB)
SALAWEYE’KATIK SALT POND (C AND B)
SAN’PATISTEK ST. JOHN ISLAND (FB)
SAPALQEK THROUGH HILL (HC)
SAPE’WIK ST. JOSEPH’S (C)
SA'PIE'LEK ILE RICHE (C)
SAQSKvTEK CAPE LA HUNE (BL)
SENPIR ST. PIERRE (ISLAND) (C)
SESOQTE’KIINIIK SCAFFOLD HILL (B)
SETA’NEWE’KATIK ST. ANN’S POINT (C)
SIINALK PORT-AUX-BASQUES (BL)
SINUKWAQANO'KUOMK HOSPITAL MILL (FB, PB?)
SINUKWAQANO'KUOMK HOSPITAL MILL (FB, PB?)
SIPKO’P SHIP COVE/ST. ALBAN’S (C)
SKO’PA’QAN LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN (HC)
SKUSUIMIINIKU WEASEL ISLAND (C)
SPLE'TK EXPLOITS RIVER (E)
STEKSUE’KATIK STAG LAKE
STEKSWE’KATIK BAY D’ EST BROOK (HC)
SULIA’NEK SOULIS POND (HC)
SULIEK SOULIS POND (B)
SULIEWEYE’KATIK SILVER POND (SG)
TEPAQANASKWE’KATIK TRAIN/TEAM HILL (C)
TEWNASIK UPPER BURGEO ESTUARY (BL)
TIIMAQANAPSKWE’KATIK PIPESTONE POND (HC)
TIIMI’KIINE’KATIK TEMEEKAN POND (BL)
TIISAWIAQANE’KATIK TEA POT FALLS (E)
WA’LI’JEK LONG POND (HC)
WALNAMKIAQ BEACH COVE (FB)
WAPESK SIPU WHITE BEAR RIVER (BL)
WAPESKUE’KATIK WHITE BEAR BAY (BL)
WAPEYK PIIM’TIIN WHITE HILL (HC)
WEN’JI’KUOMJI’JK WENJEEGWOMJEESH LAKE (B)
WEN’JU’KSNAME’KATIK LACE COVE (C)
WEN’JU’KSNANE’KATIK SHOE HILL RIDGE (FB)
WEN’JUIKJIKAN ST PIERRE (TOWN) (C)
WESKITUAPITK LARGE MARSH (C)
WI’KUJvMEJUE’KATIK BITTERN COVE (C)
WIPETIKIIL TWIN LAKES
WISKIMANE’KATIK PARTRIDGEBERRY HILL (B)
WJIPENE’KATIK BAY D’ EST (HC)
WLI MvNIKUK FOX ISLAND (C)
WLI QOSPEM GRAND LAKE (SG)
WOLNAPE’K NORTHERN HARBOUR (SG)
WOWKWISUE’KATIK FOX RIDGE BROOK (E)
WTA’QAN’JI’JK LITTLE PADDLE POND (SG)
vLvMU’JI’JUA’KIK DOG ISLAND (HC)
vLvMU’JUEKATIK DOG POND (NEWTON LAKE) (HC)
vLvMU’JUEY MvNIKU DOG ISLAND (HC)

Some Mi’kmaq place names can even be found on the Avalon Peninsula:

From the Avalon Peninsula – Description, Indian Names and European Discovery, names
are in an area between Markland and Brigus Junction, mentioned in Survey of Rocky
River and Big Barren Brook by J.P. Howley, 1872.

Nu-cool-minni-guloo Gospem
Taboo-minnigu-guloo Gospem
Tseist-minnigu-guloo Gospem
Wagedigul siboo Gospem
Tusem Gospem
Mestigue-gundaly Gospem
Quemo Gospem
Some others also mentioned in The Avalon Peninsula – Description, Indian Names and
European Discovery
Wabanna
Pentetanguishene


Suggested readings:
For more information on the history and ethnography of the Newfoundland Mi’kmaq the
following selected Biography is recommended.

On The Country, The Micmac of Newfoundland, D. Jackson, Harry Cuff Publications Ltd., St. John’s,
1993
Noywa’mkisk, Dorothy Anger, 1988, Bay St. George Regional Indian Band Council, Port au Port,
Newfoundland
Newfoundland and its Unthrodden Ways, J.G. Millais, London, Green and Co., 1907
Beothuk and Micmac, Indian notes and Monographs, edited by Frederick W. Hodge (A series of
publications relating to the American Aborigines), F.G. Speck, New York-Museum of the American
Indian-Heye Foundation, 1922
The Mi’kmaq, Resistance, Accommodation and Cultural Survival; Harald E. L. Prins
“We Fight With Dignity” -Miawpukek Mi’kmaq Quest for Aboriginal Rights in Newfoundland, Professor
H.E.L Prins, Papers of the 28th Algonquian Conference, Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press,
1997‘Chronology

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