Network "Gladio" was created in the late forties. The main purpose of the groups formed within it was the organization of subversive and clandestine activities in case of Soviet invasion of Western Europe. The Personnel for "Gladio" were the representatives of the fascist and anti-communist movement, including many former collaborators.
The level of secrecy that surrounded the activities of the secret NATO army, is evidenced by the fact that the first politician to recognize the cooperation with the far-right, was the Italian Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti, who was forced to do so in 1990. This was preceded by a six-year investigation into the Italian judge Felice Casson, who was involved in the killings Peteano where the May 31, 1972, three carabinieri were killed. Initially, investigators have attributed the attack "Red Brigades", but Felice Casson began reconsideration of the sensational case and was surprised to discover discovered that on the site of the explosion military explosive C-4, which does not look like a ultra samodelschinu was used. For this fact pulled the strings that led to the consequence of a far-right militant Vincenzo Vinchegerra - a member of a neo-fascist organization "New order» (Ordine Nuovo). Once in the Italian justice, Vincenzo did not remain silent and told about the links of his organization with the Italian secret services.
As it turned out, the Italian neo-Nazis were one of the branches of the underground network, which operated in the majority of NATO member countries. On behalf of the Italian structure of the whole network is called "Gladio", symbolizing the Roman short sword. It is difficult to say exactly what is the meaning invested in is the code name of its creators, but later it received a symbolic meaning: Roman Gladius was a double-edged sword, which can be both stabbing and slashing, and "rear group" had a dual task - to fight against the external enemy in the face of the Soviet Union and destroy the internal enemies - the local left-wing movement.
Among the fundamental works dedicated to cooperation with the far right, the book is to provide the Swiss historian Daniele Ganser: "NATO's Secret Army: Operation" Gladio "and terrorism in Western Europe." It presents a meticulous analysis of the secret armies in the 14 NATO countries. As acknowledged by Ganser, this activity was the most bloody in nature in three countries: Greece, Italy and Turkey. In this article, we will focus on Turkey, since the recent terrorist attacks in the country can have a direct link with the far-right Turkish project.
One of the determining factor in the development of post-war Turkey has a strategic role that was assigned to the country by US forces in the disposition of the Cold War. At the end of the 40s laid the paradigm of the American-Turkish relations, Turkey was assigned the role of "Southern Blade" NATO "underbelly" of the USSR. In March 1947 the US Congress approved the aid to Greece and Turkey in the amount of 400 mln. Dollars. In July of the same year between Turkey and the United States signed an agreement on the supply of arms and training by US instructors, officers and soldiers of the Turkish army. In addition, in 1948, Turkey is included in the Marshall Plan, and in the same year became a member of the IMF. Further more. According to official figures, for the period of the Truman Doctrine, Turkey was to re-Turkish army 175 million dollars, and from 1948 to 1953. Marshall gave her 656 million lire plan, and 58% of the amount of this tranche amounted to military expenditures. Total military spending in Turkey for the period totaled US $ 1.1 billion 2 , and US assistance to Turkey in the 1948-1959 biennium. It was $ 2.9 billion 3 .
The Turkish branch of "Gladio" was created in the early 1950s with the active participation of Colonel Alparslan Türkeş. Başbuğ (leader -. Tour) Turkish right-wing militant who was born in Cyprus in 1917. In 1938 he received the rank of lieutenant Tyurkesh and begins to serve in the army. During the Second World War, he actively nationalist and anti-communist propaganda, openly sympathizing with Nazi Germany. After the war Tyurkesh becomes a member of the commission of the Turkish General Staff in the United States and operates in various NATO structures 4 .
Headquarters of the Turkish "Gladio" was located in Ankara, CIA department building. Special Operations Executive (SOE) included five sections: "Group training, including interrogation methods and psychological effects; a special unit, which specialized in anti-Kurdish operations; special department conducted special operation in Cyprus; Coordination Group, also known as the "Third Bureau"; and the administrative department of " 5 .
As in other NATO countries, the Turkish "Gladio", first of all, was based on the ultra-right militants, managed by Colonel Tyurkesh. In 1965, he led the Republican Villagers Nation Party, which four years later was transformed into the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP). Its military wing becomes a youth organization "Grey Wolves» (Bozkurtlar). The official symbols of the party was the flag with three crescents and wolf image. Since the early Middle Ages was considered a wolf totem animal of the Turkic tribes. According to legend, they left Central Asia because of hunger, and followed a pack of gray wolves, which led them to the fertile Anatolia. Colonel Tyurkesh had a reputation as "the Turkish Mussolini," because he was the first in the history of Turkey created amorphous traditionalist movement the ultra-modern organization with mass support and combat troops Turkish Blackshirts.The ideology of Pan-Turkism MHP became combative, which has experienced a significant influence of the Italian Fascist corporatism and Nazism. Ideal for Turkish ultra-right was the creation of a large Turkic states - Great Turan and views Tyurkesh received expression in the so-called doctrine of "Nine rays": nationalism, idealism, moral, scientific, solidarism, policy towards the village, the development of freedom and personality, progress and nation, industrialization 6 .
Tyurkesh wrote: "Recently, we have seen that Turkey has begun an ideological war between capitalists and communists. Both these philosophies are of foreign origin, they are both materialistic and are alien to the Turkish nation ... We also put forward the doctrine, based on spiritual values. " And further: " Against the communist ideology, which is the possibility of rapid expansion due to the negligence of the authorities, we have applied the ideology in recent years Turkic nationalism. We have created a modern national doctrine, which is directed against communism, and which will contribute to the development and the rise of Turkey. We called this doctrine "Nine rays." We - not for capitalism and for communism, we chose a third way, that is, advanced socio-economic doctrine, which is based on the spiritual foundations of Islam and Turkic nationalism and simultaneously represents the progress of modern scientific thought " 7 .
After the war, Turkey is experiencing rapid population rise: in 1940 the country's population of 17 million people, and in 1980 its population increased to 46 million this process was accompanied by an increase in the number of urban residents:. 1960 - 26% of the population lived in urban areas, in 1970 this figure amounted to 46% 8 . The social base of the "gray wolves" was the Anatolian rural youth, pouring into the city in the 1960s. Tyurkesh he organized a network of summer camps in which the neo-fascist militants received military training 9 .
As Ganser writes: "It was the National Fascist Movement, which develops and maintains the CIA while working with the Turkish secret army" 10 . In his book he also says that the Turkish "Gladio" included not only the party Tyurkesh, but at least two other organizations: the National intelligence organization and counterinsurgency secret army 11 . These structures of the Turkish military and the far right were intended to fight against left-wing movement and the Kurdish resistance. After his arrest in 1977, vice-director of the NRA Sabahattin Savasman publicly stated: "Our secret service is working with the CIA since 1950 ... all the technical equipment that we used was provided by the CIA. Most of our staff is trained with the help of the CIA abroad. The headquarters of the NRA was built by the CIA ... all camera equipment for interrogation, from the simplest to the most complex devices came from the CIA. This I know, because I have worked directly with him " 12 .
In 1975, the Turkish General Talat Turhan published a Turkish translation of the American combat statute FM30-31, which was developed by specialists of the secret service of the Pentagon and the US intelligence department of the Ministry of Defense. The Charter states: "The American military intelligence should be able to convince of the need to conduct special operations which will convince host governments and public opinion of the reality of the danger of rebellion. To achieve this, the US military intelligence should seek to introduce on roving agents, with the task of forming special groups are among the most radical elements of the insurgency. " "If it was not possible to successfully implement such agents in command of the insurgents could be useful to use the extreme left organizations for their own purposes, to achieve the goals described above" 13 . Ray Cline, the deputy CIA director for exploration in 1960, confirmed the authenticity of FM30-31 statute.
Army counterinsurgency training center is located in different regions of the country: Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, Kayseri, Buka, Çanakkale, and after 1974 - Cyprus 14 . NRA Agents were directly related to the massacre in Kyzyldyre that killed one of the leaders of the Turkish revolutionary generation of 1968 Mahir aspirations and his nine comrades.
In their struggle against the leftist movement in Turkey NATO strategy was guided "by destabilization to stabilize." It can be represented as follows: there is a fierce political confrontation between the right and left-wing parties, the Left are gaining popularity and are close to seizing power at this point the secret services organized major terrorist attack or armed attack, in which killed a lot of civilians. Panic-stricken society demands to punish those responsible - and in its wake come to power military to "stop" a civil war and impose "order". It is worth mentioning that the second half of the XX century in Turkey, there were four military coups: in 1960, 1971 1980 and 1997. And every time they have played a prominent role far-right, which already in 1980 possessed the support of 200 thousand. Their active supporters 15 .
Turkish "Gladio" took part in the coup September 12, 1980 It was preceded by "Bloody Sunday" on Taksim Square - May 1, 1977. On that day, on the area it was about half a million demonstrators, and after sunset, snipers opened fire on them from the roof of the hotel "Marmara": 38 people were killed and hundreds injured. The perpetrators have not been found, but a number of evidence proving the involvement of the Turkish far-right militants. This was pointed out, even the Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit, a representative of the social democratic wing of the Republican People's Party.
As a result of these events, September 12, 1980 there was the third in the history of republican Turkey coup. He was due to the severe economic crisis, which was caused by a jump in oil prices in 1973 (Turkey imported 80% of its oil country) and the ongoing political instability in the country 16 . Political life in Turkey '70s - is alternately rule the two major parties in power - the Republican People's Party, led by Bulent Ecevit, and the Conservative Party of Justice, led by Suleyman Demirel. None of them could not form a single-party government, blocking the right Nationalist Movement Party and the Islamist National Salvation Party. From 1974 to 1980. It was formed seven coalition government offices 17 .
The leader of the coup on September 12, General Kenan Evren (he was subsequently sentenced to life imprisonment and died in prison) led counterinsurgency secret army and was actively involved in the military and police operations against leftist groups, involving them in the right-wing militants. In June 1978, General Evren is a visit to the USA, where, at a meeting with him, Zbigniew Brzezinski publicly sanctioned the military coup: "We need a stable Turkey. But events did not develop in this direction "18 . In the next 1980, at a meeting of the NATO Military Committee in Brussels, NATO's commander in chief, General Rogers advised the Turkish military forces" to expand the scope of their powers " 19 .Thus, not only we are known in the US and Europe about the impending coup, but most actively pushed to it the Turkish military.
After the coup, military dictatorship launched a large-scale repression against the left. According to the General Staff of the Turkish army, for the period from September 12 coup February 11, 1982 43 140 people were arrested. 57% of those arrested were aged 16-25 years 20 . According to estimates of the Turkish human rights activists, after the coup of 650 thousand. People were detained, 1,683,000 thousand. Man caught in a police filing cabinet, and 230 thousand. Man brought to trial. It has been handed down 517 death sentences and 50 convicts were hanged.
Tyurkesh was not a puppet of Turkish generals and wanted to lead his party to power. Kenan Evren took the "gray wolves" as a convenient tool for the suppression of the left, but after the defeat of the left movement necessity of an alliance with the far right has disappeared. 578 IPA members, headed by its leader appeared in court. They were accused of the murder of 594 people, including a prominent trade union leader Kemal Turkler 21 . At the same time, the number of committed "gray wolves" killers was clearly underestimated, because, according to independent experts on their account for about 4 thousands of lives 22 .
However, a few years later the authorities again took service "gray wolves". At this time, the ultra-right was used to combat the effect of gaining the Kurdistan Workers' Party. Since the beginning of 80s guerrillas Tyurkesh included in an active struggle against the Kurdish national liberation movement.The methods of struggle of the Turkish "Gladio" against the Kurds were very diverse, starting with operations under a foreign flag in order to discredit the PKK and ending with the publication of numerous propaganda literature, which developed a special Turkish intelligence department 23 . In the 80s it created the intelligence department of the Turkish Gendarmerie JİTEM (Jandarma İstihbarat ve Terörle Mücadele) , kotorіy responsible for the murder and disappearance of thousands of Kurds in the southeast of the country. One of the key leaders of the Major JİTEM The Ersever wrote in the early nineties of the book, which described in detail the activities of the Turkish death squads. Disguised as policemen attacked PKK Kurdish villages, raped and killed any innocent people. After a major book publishing Ersevera his dead body was found with his hands tied 24 , and JİTEM and continues to be actively involved in the punitive operations against the Kurds, which began in autumn 2015 25 . The gendarmes are directly related to the murder of three Kurdish women (Pakize Nair, Seve Demir, Fatma Uyar), which took place in the city of Sinop, in January 2016. This murder had a symbolic meaning, as happened three years after the massacre in Paris January 9, 2013, when the agent of Turkish special services committed the brutal murder of three Kurdish activists: Sakineh Jansiz, Fidan Doğan and Leyla Soylemez 26 .
Abdullah Ocalan writes: "As a result of the attacks of the two organizations to work together, with the powers that be above the law, even the constitution, there were more than ten thousand unsolved crimes. Murder Ozan Sefkana (Celal Ercan) and his team (1985), the murder of Comrade Makhsum Korkmaz (1986), attempts to surrender, committed by Selahattin Celik, as well as the crisis that took place at the Third Congress of the PKK in 1986 - all these are serious facts, which directly or indirectly are connected with the actions of JİTEM » 27 .
Activities of the far right to re-energize the start of a new round of military confrontation in the early 90s. During this period, the PKK leader was quite a lot of attacks, which they had had a direct bearing. November 3, 1996 near the village of Susurluk road accident occurred. The crashed car is right-wing militias and drug dealer Abdullah Çatlı, his girlfriend, the model associated with the Mafia Goncha Us, Deputy Chief of Istanbul Police Hussein Kodzhada and Member of Parliament was held in the government coalition of the Party of the True Path Sedat Bucak - the head of the militia detachment of pro-Turkish Kurdish militia. All passengers, except Budzhaka died. The fact that a wanted criminal, an active member of the punitive anti-Kurdish operations, was in the company of government officials, was the occasion for a major political scandal. Tens of thousands of people took to the streets to protest against the actions of the authorities, using neo-fascists and the secret army counterinsurgency.
The culminating moment in the activities of the Turkish "Gladio" was the capture of Ocalan in 1999.Initially, the ruling circles of the United States denied the direct involvement of its secret services in the capture of PKK leader, but in the future in the US media published information about US involvement in the persecution of Abdullah Ocalan. This participation took the form of political pressure on the country in which at different times prezzhal in search of political asylum to Ocalan (Syria, Russia, Italy and Greece), as well as through the wiretapping of telephone conversations and monitoring of the movements of the Kurdish leader. All received information is transmitted to the United States Ankara, and that US agents were informed Turkey about the arrival of Ocalan in Kenya.After that the capture of PKK leader was only a technical problem 28 .
What is the current activities of the Turkish "Gladio"?
In March 2013 the leader of the PKK, Abdullah Ocalan appealed to the Turkish government to find a political solution to the Kurdish question. The next two years, Erdogan avoided carrying out large punitive actions in the south-east of the country - although the government has not made any serious moves in the issue of the release of Kurdish prisoners. PKK unilaterally started to withdraw their forces from the territory of Turkey, but Erdogan made it clear that will make concessions only after the complete capitulation of the Kurdish guerrillas. After that negotiations have stalled.
An important political background of these events was the civil war in Syria and the creation of the Kurdish autonomy in the north. The emergence of Kurdish cantons did not fit into the plans of the Turkish elite, but the ruling elite could not without good reason to go for a violation of a fragile truce.That reason was the terrorist attack July 20, 2015 in Suruç when errorist bomber killed 32 people and more than a hundred people were injured. The purpose of the attack was not chosen by chance - in Suruç border attended by activists of the socialist Federation of Youth Associations (Sosyalist Gençlik Derneği Federasyonu - SGDF) , to participate in a volunteer campaign to restore the destroyed Islamist Kurdish city of Cobán. (CHP) Deputy Chairman of the Kemalist Republican People's Party Veli Agbaba said that this tragedy - "the result of government policy in the Syrian issue and the activities of the security services" 29 .
In response, shares Kurdish guerrillas killed in the nearby town Sheylanpinar two police officers related to the jihadists. And this action became the formal reason for the resumption of the Turkish air force air strikes on PKK bases in the Qandil Mountains. It is difficult to believe that the murder of two police officers was the real cause of the armistice breaking. Quite the contrary - it was an expected reaction of the authorities on the terrorist attack in Suruç.
It is important to remember that in June of the same year in the Turkish parliamentary elections were held, the results of which, Erdogan's party lost the parliamentary majority (258 seats out of 550). A month later, an explosion occurred in Suruç and the war with the PKK. In this situation brings to mind the words of Engels: "... Where on the surface is a game of chance, there is this very randomness is always subordinated to the inner, hidden laws. The thing is just to discover these laws " 30 . After the termination of the two-year truce with the Kurds Turkish capital sweeping series of terrorist attacks.October 10 a suicide bomber drives a bomb near the central railway station. During the attack killed 102 and injured 246 people. And in early November, held early elections in the Turkish parliament, in which the Justice and Development Party wins a majority - 317 seats (57.64%), thereby acquiring the ability to form a single-party government. These events are very well fit into the strategy of "creating tension" - the escalation of violence is almost always pushed disoriented society in the direction of the ruling party, turning it into a bastion of stability and order.
During the two-thousand years in Turkey held a series of high-profile lawsuits against the Turkish military, the most famous of which was the conspirological business organization "Ergenekon", which ended in the arrest of retired military, were skeptical of a NATO cooperation . With it, Erdogan intimidated command of the Turkish army, which has positioned itself as the guarantor of the head of the Ataturk legacy. All military coups in Turkey took place under the same slogan: "Back to Ataturk", which means - to the secular and republican Turkey. As stated by Deputy Head of the General Staff of the Turkish Army, General Cevik Bir, "In Turkey, between Islam and democracy, concluded the marriage. The child of this union - secularism. Sometimes a child gets sick, and the Turkish army - just the doctor who saves him. Depending on the severity of the disease, we introduce the right medicine to the child recovered " 31 .
Erdogan learned the error of his ideological predecessors of the Democratic Party of Adnan Menderes, who was overthrown and executed by the military, and struck the Turkish generals preemptive strike aimed at dismantling the Kemalist heritage. This is evidenced by the important processes that take place at the National Intelligence Service. Leading position in this structure traditionally occupied military personnel - in such a way generals have a direct impact on the Turkish intelligence. In the early 90s the share of military unit in the NRA was about 35%, but now, according to some, it does not exceed 5% 32 . Thus, the structure of which was used for their own purposes cooperation with the far right, is now under the control of the Turkish President.
At present, the main enemy of the Turkish ruling elite is the Kurdish national liberation movement, which enjoys the support of the Turkish left. To suppress it, Erdogan is necessary to decide on a sweep of the Kurdish south-east Turkey and destroy the Kurdish autonomy in northern Syria. To this end, Turkey has supported the militants LIH and other Islamist groups, based on the jihadists as a force possessing enormous mobilization potential. However, the ultra-nationalist organizations - including the "Grey Wolves" - still used by the Turkish authorities.
The ancient Romans were pragmatic people and in the search for the perpetrator of crime has always asked the question «Cui prodest?» - «Who benefits?". With regard to acts of terrorism sweeping response to Turkey is clear - they are beneficial to the ruling Justice and Development Party, on the basis of an old strategy against the left-wing movement, which for many years was carried out in the country with the support of NATO and has always been based on collaboration with the forces of the extreme right reaction. Maxim Lebsko
Carl Lebt . Turkey: the struggle for cultural hegemony
Andrew Manchuk . Kurdistan, which is not
Alexander Rybin . Rozhava - "People's House"
Immanuel Wallerstein . Taksim. Kurdish dilemma
Andrew Manchuk . Istanbul. Echo "Nicky"
Alexander Ivanov . Park Gezi. theatrical performance
Andrew Manchuk. Hasankeyf. Doomed City
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